Hydraulic Resistance in Grass Swales Designed for Small Flow Conveyance

The successful expansion of V.T. Chow’s hydraulic retardance curves (n vs. VR, an engineering standard since 1959) was a result of collaborative efforts performed between UA and UAB. This work implicitly defines hydraulic resistance, in grass swales, when the depth of flow is optimal for the extraction of heavy metals. Ongoing research demonstrates grass swales potential for implementation as a stormwater control best management practice.