Gout1

Gout (metabolic arthritis) is a disease created by a buildup of uric acid. Crystals of uric acid are deposited on the articular cartilage of joints, tendons and surrounding tissues.  These crystals cause inflammation and severe pain.  If not treated, the crystals form a tophi (Latin for stone), which can cause tissue damage.  Gout is caused by high concentrations of uric acid (hyperuricemia) combined with overall acidity in the bloodstream.  Separately, high levels of uric acid or acidity do not normally cause gout.

Gout most often occurs in men but it can affect women as well.  It most often attacks the big toe (about 75 % of first attacks) but it can also attack other joints such as the ankle, heel, instep, knee, wrist, elbow, fingers and spine. 

Symptoms

  • Excruciating, sudden unexpected burning pain
  • Swelling of affected joint
  • Redness of the affected joint
  • Warmth of the affected joint
  • Stiffness of the affected joint
  • Low-grade fever

Patients with long standing hyperuricemia may have uric acid crystal deposits in other areas such as the outer part of the ear.  High levels of uric acid in the urine can lead to uric acid kidney stones.


What Causes Gout?

Gout occurs when excess uric acid (a normal waste product) collects in the body, and needle‐like urate crystals deposit in the joints. This may happen because either uric acid production increases or, more often, the kidneys cannot remove uric acid from the body well enough. Certain foods and drugs may raise uric acid levels and lead to gout attacks. These include the following:

  • Foods such as shellfish and red meats
  • Alcohol in excess
  • Sugary drinks and foods that are high in fructose
  • Some medications

How is Gout Diagnosed?

Some other kinds of arthritis can mimic gout, so proper diagnosis (detection) is key. Health care providers suspect gout when a patient has joint swelling and intense pain in one or two joints at first, followed by pain‐free times between attacks. Early gout attacks often start at night. Diagnosis depends on finding the distinguishing crystals.


How Is Gout Treated?
With the use of Colchicine for acute flares. Other medications include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and corticosteroids.  It is important to contact your physician if you notice any of the symptoms above for best treatment.

Source: http://www.rheumatology.org/Practice/Clinical/Patients/Diseases_And_Conditions/Gout/


Current Gout Trials

  1. Horizon-M0401_Krystexxa- Eyes on Gout
  2. AMP-001/ Triple Trial - Pegloticase Trial
  3. Sobi Anakinra 401
  4. AZ Fit-Bit
  5. Amgen Denosumab
  6. Cort Project 2