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1. Cassel EJ. The nature of suffering and the goals of medicine. NEJM. 1982, 306:639-45.

2. Steinhauser KE, et al. In search of a good death: Observations of patients, families, and providers. Ann Intern Med. 2000, 132(10):825-32.

3. Bailey FA. “Introduction to Palliative Care.” The Palliative Response. Menasha Ridge Press. 2003; pp. 3-6.

Advance Care Plannin

1. Prendergast T. Advance care planning: pitfalls, progress, promise. Crit Care Med. 2001; 29(2):Supplement N34-9.

2. Schwartz C. Honing an advance care planning intervention using qualitative analysis: the living well interview” J Palliat Med. 2003;6:593-603.

3. Bailey FA. “Advanced Care Planning.” The Palliative Response. Menasha Ridge Press, 2005. Section 5.3

Anorexia & Artificial Hydration/Nutrition
1. Finucane TE, et al. Tube feeding in patients with advanced dementia. JAMA. 1999; 282(14):1365-70.

2. Casarett D, et al. Appropriate use of artificial nutrition and hydration – fundamental principles and recommendations. N Engl J Med. 2005; 353(24):2607-12.

3. Yavuzsen T, et al. Systematic review of the treatment of cancer-associated anorexia and weight loss. J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23(33):8500-11.

1. Minton O, et al. Drug therapy for the management of cancer related fatigue. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2010; July 7.

2. Kerr CW, et al. Effects of methylphenidate on fatigue and depression: A double blind randomized controlled trial. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2012; 43(1):68-77.

3. Bailey FA. “Fatigue.” The Palliative Response. Menasha Ridge Press, 2005. Section 1.2


1. Back AL, Arnold RM, & Quill TE. Hope for the best, and prepare for the worst. Ann Intern Med. 2003; 138(5):439-43.

2. Baile WF, et al. SPIKES—A six-step protocol for delivering bad news: Application to the patient with cancer. Oncologist. 2000; 5:302-11.

3. Lo B, et al. Discussing palliative care with patients. Ann Intern Med. 1999; 130:744-9.

4. Quill TE, Arnold RM, & Platt F. “I wish things were different”: Expressing wishes in response to loss, futility, and unrealistic hopes. Ann Intern Med. 2001; 135(7):551-5.

1. Young J, Inouye SK. Delirium in elderly people. Lancet. 2014; 383: 911-22.

2. Moyer, D. Review article: Terminal delirium in geriatric patients with cancer at the end of life. Am J Hospice Palliat Care. 2011; 28(1):44-51.

3. Bailey, FA. “Delirium.” The Palliative Response. Menasha Ridge Press, 2005. Section 3.1. 

1. Bailey FA. “Depression.” The Palliative Response. Menasha Ridge Press, 2005. Section 3.3. 

2. Pereira J & Bruera E. Depression with psychomotor retardation: Diagnostic challenges and the use of psychostimulants. J Palliat Med. 2001; 4(1):15-2.

3. Taylor L, et al. Diagnosis of depression in patients receiving specialist community palliative care: Does using a single screening question identify depression otherwise diagnosed by clinical interview? J Palliat Med. 2013; 16(9):1140-2.

1. Mahler DA, et al. American College of Chest Physicians consensus statement on the management of dyspnea in patients with advanced lung or heart disease. Chest. 2010; 137(3): 674-91.

2. Abernathy AP, et al. Effect of palliative oxygen versus room air in relief of breathlessness in patients with refractory dyspnea: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Lancet. 2010; 376: 784-93.

3. Jennings, AL, et al. Opioids for the palliation of breathlessness in advanced disease and terminal illness. Cochrane Database of Scientific Reviews. 2001(3).

4. Wildiers, H, & Menten, J. Death rattle: prevalence, prevention and treatment. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2002; 23(4):310-7.

5. Bailey FA. “Physical Suffering: Dyspnea.” The Palliative Response. 2nd edition. Menasha Ridge Press, 2005: 27-31.

1. Quill TE, Lee BC, Nunn S. Palliative treatments of last resort: Choosing the least harmful alternative. Ann Intern Med. 2000,132:488-93.

2. Bloche, MG. The Supreme Court and the purposes of medicine. N Engl J Med. 2006, 254;10.

GI Symptoms
1. Bailey FA. Physical Suffering: Constipation, Nausea and Vomiting. The Palliative Response. 2nd edition. USA: Menasha Ridge Press, 2005. 21-25, 39-43.

2. Portenoy RK, et al. Subcutaneous methylnaltrexone for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation in patients with advanced illness: a double-blind, randomized, parallel group, dose-ranging study. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2008; 35 (5): 458-468.

3. Ripamonti CI, Easson AM, & Gerdes H. Management of malignant bowel obstruction. Eur J Cancer. 2008; 44 (8): 1105-1115.

1. Kochhar R, et al. Opioids in cancer pain: common dosing errors. Oncology. 2003; 17:571-9.

2. Mercadante S, Caraceni A. Conversion ratios for opioid switching in the treatment of cancer pain: a systematic review. Palliat Med. 2011; 25(5):504-15.

3. Balducci L. Management of cancer pain in geriatric patients. J Support Oncol. 2003; 1(3):175-91.

4. Foley KM. Opioids and chronic neuropathic pain. N Engl J Med. 2003; 348:1279-81.

1. Bailey FA. “Medicare Hospice Benefit,” The Palliative Response. Menasha Ridge Press, 2005. Section 2.2

2. Christakis NA & Lamont EB Extent and determinants of error in doctors' prognoses in terminally ill patients: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2000; 320:469-73.

3. Head B, Ritchie CS, & Smoot TM. Prognostication in hospice care: can the palliative performance scale help? J Palliat Med. 2005; 8(3):492-502.

4. Moss AH, et al. Prognostic significance of the "surprise" question in cancer patients. J Palliat Med. 2010;13(7):837-40.

1. Fosarelli, P. Medicine, spirituality, and patient care. JAMA. 2008; 300(7):836-8.

2. Lo, B, et al. Discussing religious and spiritual issues at the end of life: A practical guide for physicians. JAMA. 2002; 287(6):749-54.

3. Puchalski, CM. Spirituality and end-of-life care: A time for listening and caring. J Palliat Med. 2002; 5(2):289-94.

4. Chochinov HM, et al. The effect of dignity therapy on distress and end-of-life experience in terminally ill patients: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2011; 12(8):753-62.