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An introduction to tree-structured modeling with application to quality of life data.

Su X, Azuero A, Cho J, Kvale E, Meneses KM, McNees MP.

School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.



Investigators addressing nursing research are faced increasingly with the need to analyze data that involve variables of mixed types and are characterized by complex nonlinearity and interactions. Tree-based methods, also called recursive partitioning, are gaining popularity in various fields. In addition to efficiency and flexibility in handling multifaceted data, tree-based methods offer ease of interpretation.


The aims of this study were to introduce tree-based methods, discuss their advantages and pitfalls in application, and describe their potential use in nursing research.


In this article, (a) an introduction to tree-structured methods is presented, (b) the technique is illustrated via quality of life (QOL) data collected in the Breast Cancer Education Intervention study, and (c) implications for their potential use in nursing research are discussed.


As illustrated by the QOL analysis example, tree methods generate interesting and easily understood findings that cannot be uncovered via traditional linear regression analysis. The expanding breadth and complexity of nursing research may entail the use of new tools to improve efficiency and gain new insights. In certain situations, tree-based methods offer an attractive approach that help address such needs.


Link to PubMed