Herpes simplex virus infection

Subject
Herpes simplex virus infection. [Review] [15 refs]

Authors
N/A

Source
Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Diseases. 13(1):6-11, 2002 Jan.

Abstract     
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are among the infections most frequently encountered by humans. Two types of HSV infections have been identified-HSV-1, which usually causes orolabial disease, and HSV-2, which is associated more frequently with genital and newborn infections. Usually, HSV causes mild and self-limited disease of the mouth and lips or at genital sites. However, on occasion, the disease can be life-threatening. Such is the case with neonatal HSV infection and HSV infections of the central nervous system. Furthermore, in the immunocompromised         host, severe infection has been encountered and is a source of morbidity. Even in the immunocompetent host, frequent recurrences, particularly those of the genital tract, can be debilitating. Because HSV does cause genital ulcerative disease, it is associated with an increased risk of acquiring a human immunodeficiency virus infection. During the past        2 decades, selective and specific inhibitors of HSV replication have been developed. These agents, acyclovir, valaciclovir, and famciclovir, all accelerate the events of healing and decrease the probability of excreting the virus when they are taken in a suppressive fashion. The long-term safety of acyclovir has been unequivocally established. Its prodrug, valaciclovir, and the prodrug of penciclovir, famciclovir, have not been used in practice as long and,  therefore, less is known about these agents; however, neither is available as a pediatric formulation.

Herpes Zoster

***PLEASE NOTE:  THE FOLLOWING ARTICLE DOES NOT HAVE AN ABSTRACT ***

Subject
Herpes zoster

Authors
N/A

Source
N Engl J Med 347:340-346, 2002

Abstract     
N/A

Viral encephalitis

Subject
Viral encephalitis: familiar infections and emerging pathogens. [Review] [69 refs]

Authors
N/A

Source
Lancet. 359(9305):507-13, 2002 Feb 9.

Abstract 
Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the natural history and pathogenesis of viral encephalitides. The development of PCR has greatly increased our ability to diagnose viral infections of the central nervous system, particularly for herpes and enteroviral infections. Advancing knowledge has led to the recognition that some encephalitides can be reliably prevented by vaccination (eg, Japanese encephalitis and rabies). For other pathogens such as the arboviruses, the focus has been on prevention by vector control. Finally, effective therapy has been established for a very limited number of viral infections (eg, acyclovir for herpes simplex encephalitis). Other potentially useful treatments, such as pleconaril for enteroviral meningoencephalitis are under clinical evaluation. We review current understanding of viral encephalitides with particular reference to emerging viral infections and the availability of existing treatment regimens.