The James and John Kirklin Institute for Research in Surgical Outcomes was established to build a comprehensive multidisciplinary institute focusing on surgical outcomes research, in order to analyze and improve outcomes of surgical therapies and their impact on patients, society (at local, national, and global levels), and the healthcare system. The outcomes research movement is transforming surgical care and the surgical community. Outcomes researchers help identify the best evidence to guide patient care. They determine the processes of care resulting in optimal outcomes, by critically appraising the results of a procedure, its global impact on patient health and well-being, satisfaction, functional status, lifespan and the healthcare system. Outcomes researchers “translate” this research into practice and policy by working with surgeons, payers and purchasers of healthcare.