Diagnose the Difficulty

    1. Is the reader aware of print in the world around them and in books?
      Invalid Input
    2. Difficulty Because Strategy
      Ignores print in the environment Do not see a purpose Environmental Print
      Ignores print in the environment Limited exposure to text Read Aloud to Students
      Not comfortable with handling books Lacks exposure to text Shared Reading
      Letter-sound correspondence Limited exposure with hearing text read aloud Interactive Reading
      Do not see themselves as a reader Lacks confidence Reading Buddies (Partner Reading)
    3. Does the reader have adequate knowledge of the alphabet and letter-sounds?
      Invalid Input
    4. Difficulty Because Strategy
      Lacks knowledge about alphabet Not interested in letters Letter Recognition
      Reads letter-by-letter Does not understand that words are composed of letters Counting Words in Speech—Matching Letters to Sounds
      Reads letter-by-letter Does not realize letter-sound relationships for forming words Everyday Phonics
      Difficulty with letter-sound correspondence Lacks experience with high-frequency letter-sound relationships Riddles & Rhymes
    5. Is the reader memorizing text and unable to identify individual words on the page?
      Invalid Input
    6. Difficulty Because Strategy
      Word units are not recognized Lacks exposure to text Language Experience Stories
      Guesses at unknown words No one-to-one correspondence Computer and Tape-Recorded Readings
      Word units are not recognized Lacks opportunities to write News and Announcements Charts
      Memorized text Lacks one-to-one correspondence Scrambled Sentences
      Memorizes text Lacks one-to-one correspondence Read Aloud to Students
      Memorizes text Lacks attention to words in the text Cloze Procedures
    1. Does the reader automatically recognize commonly used words in the text?
      Invalid Input
    2. Difficulty Because Strategy
      Lacks knowledge of common high-frequency words No connection is being made to prior knowledge/experience for storage in long-term memory Visual-Auditory-Kinesthetic-Tactile (VAKT) Approach
      Lacks knowledge of common high-frequency words Not attending to frequently occurring words in text Bag Words/Sight Word Vocabulary
      Reads slowly Lacks opportunities for rereading/revisiting familiar text Repeated Readings
      Reads word by word Lacks confidence Sustained Silent Reading
      Reads word-by-word Few decoding strategies Finding Little Words in Bigger Words
    3. Does the reader have a variety of word attack strategies to figure out unfamiliar words?
      Invalid Input
    4. Difficulty Because Strategy
      Memorizes text Lacks attention to words in the text Cloze Procedures
      Sees all words as “new” and unknown Not recognizing patterns in words Word Walls
      Guesses at unknown words Few decoding strategies Context Clues, Rereading, & Skipping
      Guesses or hesitates at unknown words Do not see patterns & connections within words Onsets & Rimes/Tongue Twisters Rhyming Books
      Over-relying on “sound it out” Few decoding strategies Finding Little Words in Bigger Words
      Over-relying on “sound it out’ Do not see patterns/connections between words Building Reading & Writing Vocabulary Structural Analysis
      Unaware of reading strengths Lacks confidence Context Clues, Rereading, & Skipping
    5. When the reader makes an error (insertion, deletion, misreads), does the error make sense and sound like spoken language?
      Invalid Input
    6. Difficulty Because Strategy
      Errors during reading do not make sense Lacks understanding of semantic cueing system for reading Context-Structure-Sound Reference (CSSR)
      Errors during reading do not sound like spoken language Lacks understanding of syntactic system for reading Context-Structure-Sound Reference (CSSR)
    7. Does the reader accurately identify words, but moves at a slow pace through the text?
      Invalid Input
    8. Difficulty Because Strategy
      Reads slowly Does not see purpose for reading Writing Text for Struggling Readers
      Reads slowly Lacks opportunities hearing text read aloud Modeling Fluent Reading by Reading Aloud
      Reads slowly Lacks experiences with a proficient reader modeling reading process Think Aloud
      Reads slowly Needs time and practice to build a reading muscle Sustained Silent Reading
      Reads slowly Needs a real audience for performance purposes Readers’ Theater
    1. Does the reader seem uninterested in reading?
      Invalid Input
    2. Difficulty Because Strategy
      Inattentive to text Uninterested before beginning the text Jackdaws
      Misses details in text Hurried reading overly interested in finishing Response Journals
      Inattentive while reading Lacks understanding of reading purpose Purposes of Reading
      Regularly losses place while reading Not remaining active while reading Predicting/Self Questioning
    3. Does the reader finish the text quickly but has no comprehension?
      Invalid Input
    4. Difficulty Because Strategy
      Finishes quickly but comprehension is compromised Lacks purpose for reading Pair-Think-Share
      Reads quickly but without understanding Not accessing and using prior knowledge Guided Imagery/Role Playing
      Comprehension is compromised Overly focused on reading words accurately Imagery
      Unable to retell Overly focused on reading words accurately rather than understanding Summarizing/Retelling
    5. Does the reader finish quickly but reads with inaccuracy?
      Invalid Input
    6. Difficulty Because Strategy
      Reads quickly but inaccurately Lacks understanding that reading rates change depending on demands of the text Choral Reading
      Errors during reading do not make sense Lacks understanding of semantic cueing system for reading Context-Structure-Sound Reference (CSSR)
      Errors during reading do not make sense Lacks understanding of semantic cueing system for reading Context-Structure-Sound Reference (CSSR)
      Errors during reading do not sound like spoken language Lacks understanding of syntactic system for reading Context-Structure-Sound Reference (CSSR)
    1. Does the reader choose NOT to read?
      Invalid Input
    2. Difficulty Because Strategy
      Choosing books Sees no purpose in reading Purposes of Reading
      Choosing Books Lacks experience choosing “just right” books Genre/Author Studies
      Comprehension is compromised Not choosing appropriate reading materials Guided Reading
    3. Does the reader read but seem unwilling to share their ideas about the text?
      Invalid Input
    4. Difficulty Because Strategy
      Do not see themselves as a reader Lacks confidence Reading Buddies (Partner Reading)
      Unaware of reading strengths Lacks confidence Context Clues, Rereading, & Skipping
      Unable to retell Lacks knowledge of retelling Story Mapping
      Unable or unwilling to retell Lacks confidence Linguistic Roulette
    5. Does the reader only choose one type of book to read?
      Invalid Input
    6. Difficulty Because Strategy
      Only reads one type/genre of book Lack opportunities to interact with other readers and get new ideas for reading Literature Circles
      Only reads one genre/type of book Do not see themselves as a reader Language Experience Stories
    1. Does the reader thinkg about what he/she already knows before reading?
      Invalid Input
    2. Difficulty Because Strategy
      Comprehension is compromised No accessing and using prior knowledge Surveying & Predicting
      Misses main idea/purpose Not accessing and using prior knowledge Purposes of Reading
    3. Does the reader connect the text with themselves?
      Invalid Input
    4. Difficulty Because Strategy
      Misses main idea/purpose Not connecting information in text to personal experiences, prior knowledge, or other texts Connecting
      Not using prior knowledge Not connecting new information to known information Brainstorming/Webbing
      Unable to make personal, text, or world connections Not relating new information to known information Artful Artist or Sketch to Stretch
      Inability to make connections between texts on same topic/subject Not relating new information to known information Compare and Contrast Charts
    5. Does the reader get overwhelmed with the events, etc.??
      Invalid Input
    6. Difficulty Because Strategy
      Lacks background knowledge on topic Lacks opportunities for rereading/revisiting familiar text Pre-Teaching Vocabulary for Building Prior Knowledge
      Misses details within text Not remaining active while reading Paraphrasing/Summarizing
      Unable to retell Inability to keep up with events throughout the text Visual Timelines
      Unable to retell Inability to keep up with multiple characters Semantic Webbing of Characters in a Story
      Comprehension is lost when text becomes complicated and unclear Lacks understanding of value of rereading and rethinking Adjusted Reading Rate
    7. Is the reader unable to move beyond a literal understanding of the text?
      Invalid Input
    8. Difficulty Because Strategy
      Unable to make inferences Unable to go beyond literal level of text Inferential Strategy
      Makes predictions but does not confirm and/or adjust thinking Lacks understanding of the purpose of predictions for reading Inferential Strategy
      Unable to synthesize Lacks ability to use smaller details within text to formulate larger understanding Interpretive Questions
    1. Does the reader lack knowledge of the genre's structure?
      Invalid Input
    2. Difficulty Because Strategy
      Comprehension of nonfiction is compromised Not remaining active while reading Reciprocal Teaching
      Comprehension of nonfiction is compromised Limited knowledge of text structure/topic Reciprocal Teaching
      Comprehension is compromised in nonfiction Lacks exposure to nonfiction texts Pre-telling/Sequencing
      Comprehension is compromised in nonfiction Not accessing and using prior knowledge on the text content Questioning
    3. Does the reader ignore new vocabulary?
      Invalid Input
    4. Difficulty Because Strategy
      Lacks ownership in learning new vocabulary encountered while reading Believes saying the word accurately is all that is necessary Word Maps
      Lacks knowledge of new vocabulary Lacks understanding of relationship between prefixes, suffixes, root words, and word meanings Building Reading & Writing Vocabulary Structural Analysis
      Lacks knowledge of new vocabulary Lacks exposure to varied types of words in meaningful contexts Word of the Day & List-Group-Share (LGS)
      Lacks knowledge of new vocabulary Not using context to anticipate word meanings Contextual Analysis
      Ignores new vocabulary Believes that reading words accurately is only reading requirement Word of the Day & List-Group-Share (LGS)