UAB News

  • UAB hits initial $2M goal toward restoring football
    According to AL.com, Hatton Smith – the Royal Cup executive tasked with leading efforts to raise $13 million toward facility improvements – said the fundraising committee already has more than $2 million cash in hand.
  • Crowdsourcing science: How Amazon’s Mechanical Turk is becoming a research tool
    A growing number of researchers, from computer scientists to philosophers, are taking an interest in the "artificial artificial intelligence" offered by Amazon's microwork platform.

    Written by Matt Windsor

    This spring, Chris Callison-Burch, Ph.D., was in town to share an unusual approach to machine learning. This is one of the hottest topics in computer science: It is behind everything from Google’s self-driving cars to Apple’s Siri personal assistant.

    Callison-Burch, an assistant professor at the University of Pennsylvania, is building a system that can automatically translate foreign languages into English — especially obscure dialects (from an American point of view) that can be of great interest to national security. He was in Birmingham at the invitation of Steven Bethard, Ph.D., a machine learning researcher and assistant professor in the UAB College of Arts and Sciences Department of Computer and Information Sciences.

    In order to teach a computer to do something, Callison-Burch explained, you need to give it examples. Lots of examples. For a French-English translation, there are millions of sample texts available on the Internet. For Urdu, not so much.

    Crowdsourced corpus

    One way around this problem would be to pay professional translation services thousands of dollars to create the “corpus” of words you would need to train a computer to translate Urdu automatically. Callison-Burch has pioneered another approach: He paid some random folks on the Internet a few bucks at a time to do the work instead.

    Callison-Burch is one of a growing number of researchers using Amazon Mechanical Turk, a service of the giant Internet company that bills itself as a “marketplace for work.” Mechanical Turk, or MTurk, as it is known, “has almost become synonymous with crowdsourcing,” Callison-Burch said. Anyone in need of help with a “human intelligence task” (Amazon’s term) can post a job description, and the “reward” they are willing to pay. One recent afternoon, some of the 255,902 tasks available on MTurk included tagging photos on Instagram (4 cents per picture), typing out the text visible in distorted images (1 cent per image) and rating test questions for a biology exam for a researcher at Michigan State University (a penny per question — this is a popular price point).

    Callison-Burch started out by giving Turkers and professional translators the same tasks. He encountered some trouble at first — respondents copying and pasting their assigned sentences into Google Translate, for example. “Quality control is a major challenge,” Callison-Burch said. “It is important to design tasks to be simple and easy to understand.”

    In order to teach a computer to do something, you need to give it examples. Lots of examples.
    That’s where Mechanical Turk can shine.

    So he tweaked his assignments to filter out people who weren’t really native speakers, and added in some clever quality control mechanisms, such as getting additional Turkers to pick the best translations out of multiple versions of the same sentence. Callison-Burch was able to get remarkably close to the professional quality, for “approximately an order of magnitude cheaper than the cost of professional translation,” he said.

    Turk-powered translation could be particularly helpful in translating regional Arabic dialects, Callison-Burch noted. “Because standard machine translation systems are trained on written text, they don’t handle spoken language well,” he said. In a recent study, Callison-Burch and his collaborators found that “comments on Arabic newspaper websites were written in dialect forms about 50 percent of the time.” A machine learning system trained in these dialects could offer vital clues about where a writer is from in the Middle East, for example, or about “his or her informal relationship with an interlocutor based on word choice.”

    Applications from obesity to philosophy

    MTurk’s brand of “artificial artificial intelligence” (Amazon’s Turk tagline) could also be applied to other machine learning research at UAB, notes Steven Bethard. “Chris’ work is fascinating,” with applications from medicine to the social sciences, Bethard said.

    UAB researchers are already putting MTurk to use. Andrew Brown, Ph.D., a research scientist in the Office of Energetics in the School of Public Health, has tested Turkers’ ability to categorize biomedical research studies. “We like to do some creative looks at what’s been published and how,” Brown said. For arecent paper, Brown and colleagues were interested in systematically evaluating nutrition-obesity studies. They wanted to find out whether studies with results that coincide with popular opinion are more likely to draw attention in the scientific community than studies that contradict the conventional wisdom. (They used citations as a proxy for the scientific community’s opinion of a paper.)  

    The first step was to identify all the studies of interest. But “the problem is, there are 25 million papers in PubMed, and sometimes the keywords don’t work very well,” Brown said. “It helps to have a human set of eyes take a look at it.” Instead of giving Ph.D.-level scientists the job, the researchers turned to MTurk. The Turkers successfully evaluated abstracts to identify appropriate studies and categorize the studied foods, then gathered citation counts for the studies in Google Scholar. (There was no significant link between public and scientific opinion when it came to the papers.)

    “We found it to be useful,” Brown said. “Expecting a perfect rating or an exhaustive rating from microworkers is probably a little premature, but on the other hand even trained scientists make mistakes.” Brown plans to use crowdsourcing for future studies. “This is just one more tool to add to our research toolbox,” he said.

    Josh May, Ph.D., an assistant professor in the UAB College of Arts and Sciences Department of Philosophy, has been using MTurk for several years — asking Turkers to solve thorny moral dilemmas. “I present participants with hypothetical scenarios and ask them to provide their opinion about them — ‘Did the person act wrongly?’” May said. “Then I see whether responses change when the scenarios are slightly different, e.g., when a harm is brought about actively versus passively, or as a means to a goal versus a side effect. Statistical analysis can reveal whether the differences are significant — providing evidence about whether the slight changes to the scenarios make a real difference in everyday moral reasoning.”

    “Expecting a perfect rating or an exhaustive rating from microworkers is probably a little premature, but on the other hand even trained scientists make mistakes…. This is just one more tool to add to our research toolbox.” —Andrew Brown, Ph.D.

    Social justice and microwork

    May, Brown and Callison-Burch share an interest in social justice for Turkers as well. “The main ethical issue with MTurk is exploitation,” May said. “The going rate is often around a quarter for a few minutes of work, which typically adds up to less than the federal minimum wage, even when working quickly. This apparently isn’t illegal given certain loopholes, but that doesn’t make it moral. Just because someone will work for pennies doesn’t mean we should withhold a living wage.”

    May’s solution for his own research “is to estimate the time it will take most workers to complete the task and then pay them enough so that the rate would amount to at least minimum wage.” Brown takes a similar approach — and when the Turkers work more slowly than expected, which drives down their overall wage, “there are bonus systems in place where you can give them something extra,” he said.

    Callison-Burch is using his programming skills to help Turkers earn fair wages. He has created a free browser extension (available at crowd-workers.com) that identifies high-paying jobs and makes it easier to identify job posters who have a large number of complaints.

    Crowdsourcing operations such as MTurk represent an untapped resource for scientists of all stripes, Callison-Burch concluded. “Individual researchers now have access to their own data production companies,” he said. “Now we can get the data we need to solve problems.”

  • New partnership strengthens path to college for 9,300 low-income students in Alabama
    As part of the UAB-led GEAR UP Alabama program, the Alabama Community College System will offer tuition waivers to a cohort of students in the Class of 2020 and 2021 students, as well as tuition assistance to parents.

    8th-grader Mekial Sherren holds Gear Up Alabama sign in pre-algebra class at Gordo High School in Pickens County.As students around the state settle back into their school routines, 9,300 middle school students in Alabama’s Black Belt Region are starting the school year with college tuition waivers awaiting them upon high school graduation.

    The Alabama Community College System has partnered with the UAB-led GEAR UP Alabama program to provide full tuition waivers to students in the Class of 2020 and 2021 who meet specified criteria for admission to attend any public community or technical college in the state.

    “The mission of the Alabama Community College System is to serve all residents of Alabama,” said Chancellor Mark A. Heinrich, Ph.D. “This mission is particularly important to those without accessible means for higher education. We are excited to play a role in assisting those in GEAR UP Alabama with postsecondary education.”

    This cohort of sixth- and seventh-grade students is the focus of a seven-year $49 million grant awarded to the UAB School of Education by the U.S. Department of Education in 2014. The Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness of Undergraduate Programs grant provides funding to states to enhance services for students, parents and teachers at high-poverty schools in order to increase the number of students who are prepared to enter and succeed in postsecondary education.

    The 9,300 students GEAR UP Alabama serves are located throughout 21 school districts and 50 schools from south of Montgomery, including Montgomery County, to the Mississippi and Georgia borders.

    “A lot of the students in that region of Alabama don’t go to college,” said UAB’s Lawrence Tyson, Ph.D., associate professor of counselor education in the Department of Human Studies and principal investigator for the program. “We have statistics to prove and support why we chose the Black Belt as our focus. Telling GEAR UP Alabama students and their families that in six or seven years, if you stay within our program, you’ll have at least two years of post-high school education waiting for you: I can’t think of a better incentive for those families to get on board and become involved as much as they can with what we’re trying to do.”

    The Alabama Community College System has also committed to providing tuition assistance to parents of GEAR UP Alabama students who qualify for admission.

    Since receiving the grant, GEAR UP Alabama has assessed participating schools, and has provided professional development to teachers and parents, and summer enrichment programs for students. The cohort of students will be followed and provided initiatives and development programs through their first year of college. Sustainability is an area of focus for all of the initiatives being developed, which will be left in place at participating schools to further serve students who follow once the grant program comes to an end.

    “This is an outstanding opportunity that will make a big impact for this cohort of students and their parents,” said UAB School of Education Dean Deborah L. Voltz, Ed.D. “GEAR UP Alabama can prepare them to take advantage of educational opportunities. The extension of tuition waivers from the Alabama Community College System removes the barrier that may have existed for some students. It serves as encouragement and incentive for participating. This partnership will make an extraordinary difference in the lives of these students.”

    State and other project partners will match UAB’s annual federal award of $3.5 million.

    “There are a lot of moving parts to this grant,” Tyson said. “We could not perform the grant well without the partnerships we have with other institutions of higher education, the State Department of Education, and partnerships that are being forged with other organizations and businesses.”

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