Texts - Mouse anatomy, histology & pathology

Conti CJ, Gimenez-Conti IB, Benavides F, Frijhoff AFW, Conti MA. Atlas of Laboratory Mouse Histology (CD-ROM)

Cook, Margaret J. The Anatomy of the Laboratory Mouse. London; New York: Academic Press, 1965
(Out of print but LHL has a copy at QY 60.R6 C772a 1965)

Fox JG, Barthold SW, Newcomer CE, Smith AL, Quimby FW. The Mouse in Biomedical Research, Volume 1, Second Edition: History, Wild Mice, and Genetics. Academic Press, New York, 2006

Fox JG, Barthold SW, Newcomer CE, Smith AL, Quimby FW. The Mouse in Biomedical Research, Volume 2, Second Edition: Diseases. Academic Press, New York, 2006

Fox JG, Barthold SW, Davisson MT, Newcomer CE, Quimby FW, Smith AL. The Mouse in Biomedical Research, Volume 3, Second Edition: Normative Biology, Husbandry, and Models. Academic Press, New York, 2006
(Chapter 1 is on gross anatomy.)

Fredrickson TN, Harris AW. Atlas of Mouse Hematopathology. Harwood Academic Publishers, London, 2000 (out of print)

Frith CH, Ward JM. Color Atlas of Neoplastic and Nonneoplastic Lesions in Aging Mice. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1988 (out of print)

Greene EG. Anatomy of the Rat. Hafner Press, New York, 2001
(Close enough for most purposes)

Gude WD, Cosgrove GE, Hirsch GP. Histological Atlas of the Laboratory Mouse. New York: Plenum Press, 1982
(Out of print but LHL has a copy at QY 17 G934h 1982)

Hedrich HJ. The Laboratory Mouse (Handbook of Experimental Animals). Academic Press, 2004.
(A general text on the mouse with some information on anatomy & histology)

Iwaki T, Yamashita H, Hayakawa T. A Color Atlas of Sectional Anatomy of the Mouse. Japan, 2001 (

Loeb WF, Quimby FW (eds.). The Clinical Chemistry of Laboratory Animals, 2nd ed. Taylor & Francis, 1999 (out of print)

Maronpot RR, Boorman GA, Gaul BW (eds.). Pathology of the Mouse. Cache River Press, Vienna, IL, 1999
(Based on B6C3F1 mice from National Toxicology Program data. Chapters have some, though not necessarily comprehensive, information on normal anatomy and histology for each organ system.)

Mohr U. International Classification of Rodent Tumours. The Mouse. Springer, New York, 2001

Percy DH, Barthold SW. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 2nd ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA, 2001. (Also includes some basic anatomy and histology in each chapter)

Smith RS, John SWM, Nishina PM, Sundberg JM. Systematic Evaluation of the Mouse Eye: Anatomy, Pathology, and Biomethods. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 2001

Sundberg JP, Boggess D. Systematic Approach to Evaluation of Mouse Mutations. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1999
(Chapter on necropsy & histology including formulae for common fixatives)

Turusov VS, Mohr U (eds.). Pathology of Tumours in Laboratory Animals, 2nd ed. Volume 2. Tumours of the Mouse. IARC Scientific Publications, Lyon, France, 1994

Ward JM, Mahler J, Maronpot RR, Sundberg JP, Frederickson R (eds.). Pathology of Genetically Engineered Mice. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, 2001.
(Has some information on normal anatomy and histology, but it's rather specialized.)

Texts - General histology and pathology

Any good quality general histology or pathology text will do. There are some species differences, but nothing that would seriously affect recognition of organs, tissues, and basic pathologic tissue changes.

Cheville NF. Introduction to Veterinary Pathology. Blackwell Publishing Professional, Ames, Iowa, 2006

Cheville NF. Ultrastructural Pathology. An Introduction to Interpretation. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, 1994

Dellmann HD, Eurell JA (eds.). Textbook of Veterinary Histology, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1998.

Fawcett DW. Bloom and Fawcett: A Textbook of Histology, 12th ed. Chapman & Hall, 1994.

Klatt E, Kumar V. Robbins and Cotran Review of Pathology, Second Edition. Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, 2004

Kumar V, Fausto N, Abbas A. Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, Seventh Edition. Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, 2004 (Comes with access to searchable online version)

Luna LG. Histopathologic Methods and Color Atlas of Special Stains and Tissue Artifacts. American Histolabs Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, 1992

Presnell JK, Schriebman MP. Humason's Animal Tissue Techniques, 5th ed. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1997

Slauson DO, Cooper BJ. Mechanisms of Disease. A Textbook of Comparative General Pathology. Elsevier Mosby, St. Louis, 2001

Other texts

Crawley JN. What's wrong with my mouse? Behavioral phenotyping of transgenic and knockout mice. Wiley-Liss, New York, 1999

Kaufman MH, Bard JBL. The Anatomical Basis of Mouse Development. Academic Press, San Diego, 1999

Kaufman MH. An Atlas of Mouse Development. Academic Press, San Diego, 1992

Lyon MF, Rastan S, Brown SDM. Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse, 3rd ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford UK, 1996

Morse HC III (ed.). Origins of Inbred Mice. Academic Press, New York, 1978

Papaioannou VE, Behringer RR. Mouse Phenotypes. A Handbook of Mutation Analysis. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, 2004

Sundberg JP (ed.). Handbook of Mouse Mutations With Skin and Hair Abnormalities. Animal Models and Biomedical Tools. CRC Press, Boca Raton FL, 1994

Theiler K. The House Mouse: Atlas of Embryonic Development. Springer Verlag, 1989

Journal articles

Bailey KR, Rustay NR, Crawley JN. Behavioral phenotyping of transgenic and knockout mice: practical concerns and potential pitfalls. ILAR J 47:124-131, 2006

Barthold SW. "Muromics": Genomics from the perspective of the laboratory mouse. Comp Med 52:206-223, 2002

Barthold SW. Genetically altered mice phenotypes, no phenotypes, and Faux phenotypes. Genetica 122:75-88, 2004

Bertoncello I, Williams B. Analysis of hematopoietic phenotypes in knockout mouse models. Methods Mol Biol 158:181-203, 2001

Bleich A, Mahler M, Most C, et al. Refined histopathologic scoring system improves power to detect colitis QTL in mice. Mamm Genome 15:865-871, 2004

Brayton C, Justice M, Montgomery CA. Evaluating mutant mice: anatomic pathology. Vet Pathol 38:1-19, 2001

Bronson RT. How to study pathologic phenotypes of knockout mice. Methods Mol Biol 158:155-180, 2001

Brown MJ, Murray KA. Phenotyping of genetically engineered mice: humane, ethical, environmental, and husbandry issues. ILAR J 47:118-123, 2006

Brown SD, Balling R. Systematic approaches to mouse mutagenesis. Curr Opin Genet Dev 11:268-273, 2001

Chen XJ. Mouse morphological phenotyping with magnetic resonance imaging. Methods Mol Med 124:103-127, 2006

Crawley JN. Behavioral phenotyping of rodents. Comp Med 53:140-146, 2003

Doetschman T. Interpretation of phenotype in genetically engineered mice. Lab Anim Sci 49:137-143, 1999

Elsea SH, Lucas RE. The mousetrap: what we can learn when the mouse model does not mimic the human disease. ILAR J 43:66-79, 2002

Gold LH. Hierarchical strategy for phenotypic analysis in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 147:2-4, 1999

Haines DC, Chattopadhyay S, Ward JM. Pathology of aging B6;129 mice. Toxicol Pathol 29:653-661, 2001

Harvey M, McArthur MJ, Montgomery CA Jr, et al. Genetic background alters the spectrum of tumors that develop in p53 deficient mice. FASEB J 7:938-943, 1993

Hickman-Davis JM. Implications of mouse genotype for phenotype. News Physiol Sci 16:19-22, 2001

Hoit BD. Murine physiology: Measuring the phenotype. J Mol Cell Cardiol 37:377-387, 2004

Hoit BD. New approaches to phenotypic analysis in adult mice. J Mol Cell Cardiol 33:27-35, 2001

Holschneider DP, Shih JC. Genotype to phenotype: challenges and opportunities. Int J Dev Neurosci 18:615-618, 2000

Ihle JN. The challenges of translating knockout phenotypes into gene function. Cell 102:131-134, 2000

Jegstrup I, Thon R, Hansen AK, et al. Characterization of transgenic mice a comparison of protocols for welfare evaluation and phenotype characterization of mice with a suggestion on a future certificate of instruction. Lab Anim 37:1-9, 2003

Johnson JT, Hansen MS, Wu I, et al. Virtual histology of transgenic mouse embryos for high throughput phenotyping. PLoS Genet 2:e61, 2006

Kulandavelu S, Qu D, Sunn N, et al. Embryonic and neonatal phenotyping of genetically engineered mice. ILAR J 47:103-117, 2006

Linder CC. Genetic variables that influence phenotype. ILAR J 47:132-140, 2006

Linder CC. The influence of genetic background on spontaneous and genetically engineered mouse models of complex diseases. Lab Anim (NY) 30:34-39, 2001

McKerlie C. Cause and effect considerations in diagnostic pathology and pathology phenotyping of genetically engineered mice (GEM). ILAR J 47:156-162, 2006

Montagutelli X. Effect of the genetic background on the phenotype of mouse mutations. J Am Soc Nephrol 11 Suppl 16:S101-S105, 2000

Murray KA. Issues to consider when phenotyping mutant mouse models. Lab Anim (NY) 31:25-29, 2002

Sanford LP, Kallapur S, Ormsby I, et al. Influence of genetic background on knockout mouse phenotypes. Methods Mol Biol 158:217-225, 2001

Ward JM. Comment on the muromics "garden path". Comp Med 52:302, 2002

Wood PA. Phenotype assessment: are you missing something? Comp Med 50:12-15, 2000

Zeiss CJ. Mutant mouse pathology: an exercise in integration. Lab Anim (NY) 31:34-39, 2002