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The Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine and the Pediatric Cardiology—Section of Cardiac Critical Care Medicine* is active in basic science, translational science, clinical care, and educational research; as well as patient safety and quality improvement.  Research interests within the Pediatric Critical Care Medicine include:

  • Improving patient care in the pediatric intensive care unit.

  • Improving Quality Care delivery in the PICU.

  • Medical education, enhancing the learning experience of medical students participating in 4th year internship rotations.

  • Fellow and Resident education in the pediatric intensive care unit.

  • Rapid cycle deliberate practice to improve cardiopulmonary arrest.

  • Delineating the role and impact of protease dysregulation in the pathogenesis of Acute Lung Injury and Respiratory Syncytial Virus-induced respiratory failure in children.

  • Critical assessment of the acutely ill non-verbal child.

  • The use simulation to teach the entire spectrum of health care providers.

  • Using simulation to improve preparedness of community health care workers for sick children.

  • Quality CPR and use of simulation.

  • Sedation outside the Operating Room

  • Risk assessment in pediatric sedation

  • Process Improvement using Lean/Six Sigma Methodology

  • Fellow and Resident quality improvement and patient safety education.

  • Methods of improving post-operative outcomes in neonates and infants with congenital heart disease.*

Participation in Multicenter Collaborations

  • Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators (PALISI)

  • Educators in Pediatric Intensive Care (EPIC)

  • International Network for Simulation-based Pediatric Research, Innovation, & Education  (INSPIRE)

  • Virtual PICU Systems, LLC (VPS, LLC)*

  • Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium PC4 (CVICU)

{slide=Current Studies}

Current Studies and projects that we are involved in include: 

  • Age of Blood in Children - ABC (active - enrolling)

  • Massive Transfusion Epidemiology and Outcomes in Children - MATIC (active - enrolling)

  • Accurate Beta-Lactam Dosing in Critically Ill Children on CRRT  (active - enrolling)

  • Prospective Pilot Clinical Trial of Azithromycin Treatment in RSV-Induced Respiratory Failure (active - enrolling)

  • Adapt Genomics: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Recovery After Severe Pediatric Brain Injury (active - enrolling)

  • PICU Family Diary Project (active - enrolling)

  • Approaches and Decision for Pediatric TBI - ADAPT (completed enrollment—data analysis)

  • Sedation Management in Pediatric Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure-RESTORE (data analysis)

  • Genetic Epidemiology and Immune Response of Life-Threatening Influenza Infection in Children and Young Adults -PICFLU (data analysis)

For questions regarding research, please contact:

Kate Sewell, RN, BSN
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Research Nurse Coordinator



Transpl Infect Dis. 2018 Mar 23:e12882. doi: 10.1111/tid.12882. A multicenter investigation of respiratory syncytial viral infection in children with hematopoietic cell transplantation. Rowan CM, Gertz SJ, Zinter MS, Moffet J, Bajwa RP, Barnum JL, Kong M; Hematopoietic Cell Transplant group of the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Sepsis Investigator (PALISI) network.

Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018 Mar;19(3):266-267. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000001434. Renal Replacement Therapy in the United Kingdom: The Devil Is in the Details. Richter RP, Prabhakaran P, Tofil NM.

Simul Healthc. 2018 Jan 25. doi: 10.1097/SIH.0000000000000281. Leveraging Quick Response Code Technology to Facilitate Simulation-Based Leaderboard Competition. Chang TP, Doughty CB, Mitchell D, Rutledge C, Auerbach MA, Frisell K, Jani P, Kessler DO, Wolfe H, MacKinnon RJ, Dewan M, Pirie J, Lemke D, Khattab M, Tofil N, Nagamuthu C, Walsh CM; INSPIRE In-Hospital QCPR Leaderboard Investigators.

Health Commun. 2017 Jul;32(7):903-909. doi: 10.1080/10410236.2016.1196412. Epub 2016 Jul 19. A Qualitative Examination of Physician Gender and Parental Status in Pediatric End-of-Life Communication. Bateman LB, White ML, Tofil NM, Clair JM, Needham BL.

Front Pediatr. 2017 Jul 28;5:164. doi: 10.3389/fped.2017.00164. eCollection 2017. A Call to the Senses: The Community Approach.
Kong MYF. 

Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017 Jun 24. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000001258. Workload of Team Leaders and Team Members During a Simulated Sepsis Scenario. Tofil NM, Lin Y, Zhong J, Peterson DT, White ML, Grant V, Grant DJ, Gottesman R, Sudikoff SN, Adler M, Marohn K, Davidson J, Cheng A; International Network for Simulation-Based Pediatric Innovation, Research and Education Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (INSPRIRE CPR) Investigators.

J Crit Care. 2017 Jun;39:209-213. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2017.02.023. Epub 2017 Feb 16. Fluid overload and outcomes in critically ill children: A single center prospective cohort study. Diaz F, Benfield M, Brown L, Hayes L.

CJEM. 2017 Apr 3:1-9. doi: 10.1017/cem.2017.12. The effect of step stool use and provider height on CPR quality during pediatric cardiac arrest: A simulation-based multicentre study. Cheng A, Lin Y, Nadkarni V, Wan B, Duff J, Brown L, Bhanji F, Kessler D, Tofil N, Hecker K, Hunt EA.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2017 Mar 7. pii: S1081-1206(17)30059-5. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2017.01.024. Survey of pediatric trainee knowledge: dose, concentration, and route of epinephrine. Scherzer DJ, Chime NO, Tofil NM, Hamilton MF, Singh K, Stanley RM, Kline J, McNamara LM, Rosen MA, Hunt EA; INSPIRE Epinephrine Research Investigators.

Sim Healthcare 2016; 11(5):357-362.An approach to confederate training within the context of simulation-based research. Adler MD, Overly FL, Nadkarni VM, Davidson J, Gottesman R, Bank I, Marohn K, Sudikoff S, Grant VJ, Cheng A for International Network for Simulation-based Pediatric Innovation, Research, Education (INSPIRE) CPR Investigators. 

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2016 Mar;54(3):359-69. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2015-0108OC. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Engagement Mediates Prolyl Endopeptidase Release from Airway Epithelia via Exosomes. Szul T, Bratcher PE, Fraser KB, Kong M, Tirouvanziam R, Ingersoll S, Sztul E, Rangarajan S, Blalock JE, Xu X, Gaggar A.

Health Commun. 2016 Jul 19:1-7. A Qualitative Examination of Physician Gender and Parental Status in Pediatric End-of-Life Communication. Bateman LB, White ML, Tofil NM, Clair JM, Needham BL.

J Grad Med Educ. 2016 Jul;8(3):346-52. doi: 10.4300/JGME-D-15-00365.1. PMID:27413436. Developing a Tool to Assess Placement of Central Venous Catheters in Pediatric Patients. Journal of Graduate Medical Education July 2016, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 346-352. G Fleming, R Mink, C Hornik, A Emke, M Green, K Mason, T Petrillo, J Schuette, MH Tcharmtchi, M Winkler, D. Turner

JAMA Pediatr. 2016 Dec 5. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.2382. Goodbyes Are Not Forever. Kong M 

JAMA Pediatr. 2016 Nov 1;170(11):1120. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.0989. Love at First Sight. Kong MY.

Paediatr Anaesth. 2016 Dec 12. doi: 10.1111/pan.13052. Pediatric anaphylaxis in the operating room for anesthesia residents: a simulation study. Johnston EB, King C, Sloane PA, Cox JW, Youngblood AQ, Lynn Zinkan J, Tofil NM

Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Oct;17(10):1001-1003. Another Piece to the Puzzle: "A Riddle Wrapped in a Mystery Inside an Enigma"-Winston Churchill. Tofil NM, Richter RP, Prabhakaran P.

The Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2016; 21(6):476-485. Effectiveness of Simulation to Enhance Learning of Torsades de Pointes for Clinical Pharmacists and Pharmacy Students.Cravens M, Benner K, Beall J, Worthington M, Denson B, Youngblood AQ, Zinkan JL, Tofil NM 

Minerva Pediatr. 2016 Jul 8. Ventilator graphics. Prabhakaran P, Sasser WC, Kalra Y, Rutledge C, Tofil NM.

Indian J Crit Care Med. 2016 Jul;20(7):425-7. Systemic thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute life-threatening Blalock-Taussig shunt obstruction. Diaz F, Sasser WC, Law MA, Alten JA.

ASAIO J. 2015 Jul-Aug;61(4):e29-30. doi: 10.1097/MAT. Transhepatic Cannulation for Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. Rhodes LA, Sasser WC, Mcmahon WS, Law MA, Timpa JG, O'Meara LC, Alten JA.