Short Diagnosis
Description of Case
Case No.
Helminths
Hookworm-related Cutaneous Larva Migrans due to Ancylostoma braziliense.
2015-09
Cutaneous Larva Migrans due to Ancylostoma braziliense.
2017-02
Ascaris lumbricoides with pancreatitis and acute biliary obstruction.
2002-05
Massive infestation with Ascaris lumbricoides.
2018-02
Ancylostoma braziliense. Severe case with involvement of trunk and extremities.
2006-06
Ancylostoma braziliense infection in two brothers.
2007-11
Echinococcus granulosus. Complicated multivesicular pulmonary cyst with erosion through the diaphragm.
2001-01
Echinococcus granulosus. Large liver cyst.
2003-03
Echinococcus granulosus. Pulmonary hydatid disease.
2005-10
Echinococcus granulosus. Acute rupture of large hydatid cyst into a main bronchus.
2008-02
Echinococcus granulosus. Splenic and extrahepatic hydatidosis.
2009-07
Echinococcus granulosus. Bilateral pulmonary hydatid cysts. Acute rupture of left cyst into a main bronchus.
2010-05
Echinococcus granulosus. Pulmonary and hepatic hydatid cysts.
2011-05
Echinococcus granulosus. Acute traumatic rupture of hydatid cyst into peritoneum with anaphylaxis.
2012-05
Echinococcus granulosus. Multiple abdominal and pelvic cysts at different stages including a calcified cyst.
2012-11
Echinococcus granulosus. Pulmonary hydatid with floating membranes on CT scan.
2013-01
Echinococcus granulosus. Massive cerebral hydatidosis with multiple parenchymal cerebral, brain stem and a right cerebellar cyst.
2014-05
Echinococcus granulosus. Hydatid of the lung.
2015-04
Echinococcus granulosus with intrabiliary rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst.
2017-11
Fasciola hepatica chronic infection and dilatation of the common bile duct.
2002-06
Subcapsular liver hematoma due to Fasciola hepatica infection (acute phase).
2019-05
Fasciola hepatica. Acute form with larval tracks seen in liver.
2003-12
Fasciola hepatica infection, acute phase with larval tracks in liver.
2005-02
Subcapsular hematoma due to Fasciola hepatica infection, acute phase.
2010-08
Fasciola hepatica infection, acute phase.
2015-05
Fasciola hepatica, chronic form with ectopic cutaneous lesion.
2017-06
Fasciola hepatica infection.
2018-08
Gnathostoma sp. causing larva migrans.
2003-01
Gnathostoma sp. Cutaneous involvement of head, neck, chest.
2012-10
Taenia solium neurocysticercosis.
2005-05
Taenia solium neurocysticercosis. A case that demonstrates in the same patient 3 different kinds of intraparenchymal lesions seen on CT scan.
2006-04
Taenia solium. Neurocysticercosis.
2019-11
Taenia solium neurocysticercosis. Parenchymal, intraventricular and subarachnoid cysts.
2007-02
Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium. Cysticerci in soft tissue and with calcification on x-ray.
2008-05
Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium with multiple intraparenchymal lesions refractory to standard therapy.
2010-02
Taenia solium neurocysticercosis. Cerebral and soft tissue cysts.
2011-06
Taenia solium neurocysticercosis. Single subarachnoid cyst at optic chiasm.
2014-01
Taenia solium neurocysticercosis. Parenchymal form.
2017-05
Paragonimus mexicanus. Pulmonary and cutaneous.
2007-01
Paragonimus mexicanus. Pulmonary paragonimiasis.
2016-10
Strongyloides stercoralis. Hyperinfection secondary to HTLV-1 infection. Upper endoscopic images.
2007-04
Disseminated fatal hyperinfection with Strongyloides stercoralis and crusted (Norwegian) scabies secondary to HTLV-1 infection.
2010-11
Strongyloides stercoralis. HTLV-1. Disseminated hyperinfection with edema, hypotension, and hyperinfested duodenal biopsy..
2012-03
Protozoa
Trypanosoma cruzi. Acute infection in a child with myocarditis.
2006-10
Trypanosoma cruzi. New onset dilated cardiomyopathy in a middle-aged man.
2014-11
Trypanosoma cruzi. Chagas cardiomyopathy.
2017-09
Liver abscess due to Entamoeba histolytica. Anchovy paste fluid on aspiration.
2010-10
Liver abscess due to Entamoeba histolytica. Anchovy paste fluid on aspiration.
2011-03
Balamuthia mandrillaris (free-living amoeba). Primary cutaneous lesion.
2004-02
Balamuthia mandrillaris (free-living amoeba). Primary cutaneous lesion with CNS involvement.
2019-07
Balamuthia mandrillaris (free-living amoeba). Fatal CNS disease. Cutaneous lesion.
2007-06
Balamuthia mandrillaris (free-living amoeba) responsive to miltefosine.
2007-10
Balamuthia mandrillaris (free-living amoeba).
2015-06
Balamuthia mandrillaris (free-living amoeba).
2017-10
Balantidium coli infection with intestinal perforation.
2002-07
Balantidium coli. Intestinal infection with secondary bacterial sepsis.
2012-01
Leishmania braziliensis infection of upper extremity.
2001-03
Mucosal leishmaniasis.
2019-09
Leishmania braziliensis.
2004-01
Leishmania braziliensis. Refractory cutaneous infection with concomitant HIV.
2006-11
Leishmania major. Peruvian traveler returned from Morocco with old world cutaneous leishmaniasis.
2009-05
Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania braziliensis. CT demonstration of extensive involvement of the nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, hypopharyngeal, and retropharyngeal areas.
2010-01
Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania braziliensis. Extensive lesions of oral and nasal mucosa.
2013-02
Leishmania braziliensis. Sporotrichoid leishmaniasis of a limb.
2014-08
Plasmodium vivax. Severe and complicated vivax malaria with respiratory failure.
2012-08
Relapse of Plasmodium vivax malaria.
2018-06
Leishmania braziliensis. Oral and oropharyngeal involvement with sequential images post-treatment.
2006-05
Leishmania braziliensis. Unusual case with simultaneous appearance of both cutaneous and oral lesions.
2009-01
Toxoplasma gondii. Congenital infection with chorioretinitis.
2014-04
Viruses
Varicella zoster virus. Acute infection in a pregnant woman.
2006-09
Varicella zoster virus. Acute infection with pneumonitis in a child with characteristic CT findings.
2012-09
Varicella zoster virus infection (Chickenpox) complicated by necrotizing cellulitis likely due to group A streptococcal infection.
2008-09
Classic dengue.
2001-08
Dengue with warning signs.
2019-08
Classic dengue fever. Typical morbilliform rash.
2007-03
Severe dengue.
2011-09
Dengue. Uncomplicated dengue with characteristic morbilliform rash.
2013-08
Dengue virus. Dengue with classic morbilliform rash after the febrile phase.
2014-09
Hepatitis B virus. Chronic infection with hepatitis B complicated by hepatocellular carcinoma.
2006-03
Chronic Hepatitis B infection complicated by hepatocellular carcinoma.
2010-06
Crusted (Norwegian) scabies secondary to HTLV-1 infection.
2001-10
HTLV-1 infection with tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP). Also called HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy (HAM).
2002-08
HTLV-1 Associated Infective Dermatitis (ID) of Childhood.
2004-07
Sarcoptes scabei causing crusted scabies secondary to HTLV-1 infection.
2008-08
HTLV-1. Complicated by adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), smoldering type with classical cutaneous lesions.
2009-11
HTLV-1 infection with 3 separate cutaneous complications: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), Tinea corporis, and crusted (Norwegian) scabies.
2011-07
HTLV-1 with ATLL, Tinea corporis HTLV-1 infection with 2 separate cutaneous complications: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), Tinea corporis.
2016-03
Crusted Scabies (Norwegian scabies) with discrete and misdiagnosed skin lesions. HTLV-1 infection.
2013-10
HTLV-1 with Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome. HTLV-1 infection. 2016-05
Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV infected Kaposi's sarcoma (KS due to HHV8); HIV associated. 2016-06
Mayaro Fever with polyarthritis.
2015-07
Rabies Rabies (genotype 1) infection paralytic form. 2016-08
Rabies Paralytic form. 2017-04
Yellow Fever. Fatal hemorrhagic fever.
2002-10
Yellow Fever. Fatal viral hemorrhagic fever.
2015-02
Yellow Fever. Viral hemorrhagic fever.
2016-02
Bacteria
Actinomyces species infection of the foot with osteomyelitis.
2001-09
Actinomyces sp. foot involvement.
2005-09
Actinomycetoma with Osteomyelitis.
2015-08
Bacillus anthracis causing cutaneous anthrax of the hand.
2001-07
Bartonella bacilliformis. Acute bartonellosis also known as Oroya fever and Carrion's Disease.
2002-01
Bartonella bacilliformis. The acute form of bartonellosis also known as Oroya fever and Carrion's Disease.
2005-01
Bartonella bacilliformis. Verruga Peruana - the chronic form of bartonellosis.
2005-08
Bartonella bacilliformis. Acute bartonellosis.
2007-08
Cat-scratch disease (CSD) with neuroretinitis due to Bartonella henselae. Stellate retinopathy (macular star) with wide tropical differential diagnosis.
2013-04
Acute bartonellosis due to Bartonella bacilliformis presenting with a hematocrit of 12%.
2013-06
Staphylococcus aureus botryomycosis on the head.
2003-04
Staphylococcus aureus. Botryomycosis of the foot mimicking mycetoma.
2014-06
Brucella melitensis. Sub-acute brucellosis with spondyloarthritis of the lumbar spine.
2001-02
Brucella melitensis. Sub-acute brucellosis with multiple concomitant complications.
2003-05
Brucella spondylitis with paravertebral abscesses due to Brucella melitensis.
2010-04
Mycobacterium ulcerans. Buruli ulcer of the buttock.
2003-09
Mycobacterium ulcerans. Buruli ulcer of the knee.
2011-11
Mycobacterium leprae. Multibacillary leprosy. Lepromatous leprosy according to the Ridley-Jopling classification.
2001-11
Mycobacterium leprae. Multibacillary leprosy according to the WHO classification. Borderline borderline (BB) leprosy according to the Ridley-Jopling classification.
2005-04
Mycobacterium leprae. Lepromatous leprosy with end-stage deformities and neuropathy.
2007-09
Mycobacterium leprae. Multibacillary leprosy according to the WHO classification. Borderline tuberculoid (BT) leprosy according to the Ridley-Jopling classification.
2009-03
Mycobacterium leprae. Lepromatous leprosy (LL). Erythema nodosum leprosum.
2011-04
Mycobacterium leprae. Multibacillary leprosy (WHO classification), borderline Lepromatous (BL) leprosy (Ridley-Jopling classification).
2019-01
Mycobacterium leprae. Lepromatous leprosy with neuropathy, thickened peripheral nerves, nasal perforation, and characteristic facies.
2012-02
Mycobacterium leprae. Multibacillary leprosy according to the WHO classification. Lepromatous leprosy (LL) leprosy according to the Ridley-Jopling classification.
2013-09
Mycobacterium leprae. Multibacillary leprosy according to the WHO classification. Lepromatous leprosy (LL) leprosy according to the Ridley-Jopling classification.
2015-03
Leprosy Mycobacterium leprae. Multibacillary leprosy according to the WHO classification. 2016-09
Mycobacterium leprae. Erythema nodosum leprosum. Treated Lepromatous leprosy (LL).
2018-03
Leptospira interrogans.
2004-09
Leptospira interrogans. Severe jaundice, conjunctival suffusion, and pulmonary involvement.
2008-04
Leptospira interrogans. Jaundice, systemic disease together with the increasingly recognized pulmonary manifestations.
2009-02
Weil's Syndrome (Severe Leptospirosis).
2018-09
Chlamydia trachomatis. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) with inguinal adenopathy.
2003-10
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). Bilateral inguinal adenopathy.
2009-09
Disseminated nocardiosis with CNS, pulmonary and extrapulmonary involvement.
2011-01
Pemphigus foliaceus (or endemic pemphigus).
2001-05
Staphylococcus aureus causing Tropical Pyomyositis.
2002-09
Treponema pallidum. Congenital syphilis with cutaneous lesions.
2005-07
Neurosyphilis with ocular presentation.
2019-10
Syphilis Malignant syphilis due to T. pallidum 2016-11
Treponema pallidum. Subclinical neurosyphilis with pan-uveitis in HIV patient.
2004-03
Clostridium tetani infection, generalized form.
2002-03
Clostridium tetani infection, generalized form.
2004-08
Clostridium tetani infection, generalized form, secondary to trauma.
2008-11
Clostridium tetani infection, generalized form.
2009-08
Clostridium tetani infection, generalized form.
2011-10
Clostridium tetani infection, generalized form.
2017-01
Mycobacterium tuberculosis causing Erythema Induratum of Bazin on the legs.
2003-02
Mycobacterium tuberculosis with sacroiliitis and spondylitis.
2019-03
Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pott's disease; presumed tuberculous meningitis; presumed pulmonary tuberculosis.
2003-06
Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Peritoneal tuberculosis with hepatic extension.
2004-04
Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Ocular tuberculosis with uveitis.
2006-07
Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Skeletal TB with infection of the hip.
2006-08
M. tuberculosis with intestinal perforation. HIV infection.
2008-10
Pott’s Disease (TB spondylitis) with giant bilateral paravertebral abscesses due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
2010-03
Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Lupus vulgaris form.
2011-08
Extrapulmonary M. tuberculosis. Genitourinary and probable TB spondylitis (Potts disease).
2016-04
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, congenital form.
2017-07
Salmonella enterica var typhi. Typhoid fever complicated by GI bleeding and intestinal ulceration.
2006-01
Salmonella typhi complicated by intestinal perforation.
2008-07
Salmonella enterica var typhi. Typhoid fever complicated by gastrointestinal bleeding and intestinal ulceration visualized at endoscopy.
2009-04
Whooping cough due to Bordetella pertussis with video of characteristic paroxysmal inspiratory whoop.
2013-07
Fungi
Phialophora verrucosa. Cutaneous involvement of extremities.
2012-06
Chronic chromoblastomycosis of the lower limb, with sclerotic bodies on KOH prep.
2014-03
Chronic chromoblastomycosis of the lower limb, with sclerotic bodies on KOH prep.
2017-03
Chromoblastomycosis likely due to Fonsecae pedrosoi.
2018-07
Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis (ODH) due to Histoplasma capsulatum.Mycobacterium ulcerans.
2019-04
Lacazia loboi (formerly Loboa loboi) cutaneous lesions. Sometimes referred to as Lobo's Disease or as keloidal blastomycosis.
2005-03
Madurella mycetomatis causing Madura foot.
2002-04
Phaeoacremonium inflatipes mycetoma (madura foot syndrome).
2007-07
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection of face and oral mucosa.
2002-02
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Juvenile form.
2019-06
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Chronic progressive disease with cutaneous lesions.
2003-07
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection (chronic form) with pulmonary and mucosal involvement.
2004-05
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection (chronic form) with pulmonary and perianal involvement.
2005-12
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The relatively uncommon “juvenile” acute progressive and disseminated form of the disease with papular skin lesions and diffuse reticuloendothelial system involvement.
2006-02
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection (chronic form). Mucosal leishmaniasis due to Leishmania brasiliensis. Pulmonary tuberculosis.
2007-05
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection (chronic form) with mucosal and pulmonary involvement.
2009-06
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Unusual case with colonic as well as pulmonary involvement.
2009-10
Paracoccidioidomycosis, juvenile form with disseminated skin lesions and infection of the lacrimal ducts.
2010-07
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Chronic pulmonary form with oral mucosal involvement.
2012-07
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection (chronic form) with extensive involvement of the oral mucosa but with a normal chest x-ray.
2013-05
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection (chronic form).
2017-08
Sporothrix schenkii cutaneous infection.
2004-10
Sporothrix schenkii. Lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis.
2019-02
Sporothrix schenkii cutaneous ulcer with sporotrichoid spread.
2008-01
Sporothrix schenkii disseminated infection in an untreated AIDS patient.
2011-02
Sporothrix schenkii. Cutaneous involvement of extremities, face, and neck after multiple autoinoculation.
2012-04
Sporotrichosis due to Sporotrix schenkii. Ulcer with characteristics difficult to differentiate from leishmaniasis.
2013-03
Sporotrix schenkii. Classic sporotrichoid lesions on upper limb.
2014-10
Environmental Hazards
Bothrops atrox (fer-de-lance), a common neotropical pit viper in South America, causing severe local necrosis of leg.
2001-04
Bothrops atrox [“jergón” (Perú), common lancehead (USA), fer-de-lance (France)], a common neotropical pit viper in South America, with DIC.
2003-11
Bothrops atrox [“jergón” (Perú), common lancehead (USA), fer-de-lance (France)], a common neotropical pit viper in South America, with transient shock, systemic bleeding and likely coagulopathy.
2005-11
Envenomation with severe necrosis of a limb due to Bothrops atrox [“jergón” (Perú), common lancehead (USA), fer-de-lance (France)], a common pit viper in 9 South America countries.
2014-02
Envenoming by desert lancehead pit viper (Bothrops pictus or B. roedingeri).
2018-04
Loxosceles laeta. Necrotic arachnidism due to bite of the South American recluse spider.
2003-08
Loxosceles laeta. Necrotic araneism due to bite of the South American recluse spider.
2008-03
Necrotic arachnidism due to bite of the South American brown recluse spider Loxosceles laeta.
2015-01
Loxoscelism Necrotic arachnidism due to bite of the South American brown recluse spider Loxosceles laeta. 2016-07
Kwashiorkor (protein/energy malnutrition), also called edematous malnutrition.
2001-06
Severe Kwashiorkor (protein/energy malnutrition), also called edematous malnutrition.
2010-09
Cochliomyia hominivorax (the new world screwworm). Infestation of ear.
2004-06
Dermatobia hominis (also called the human botfly) furuncular myiasis.
2005-06
Cochliomyia hominivorax (the new world screwworm) infestation (myiasis) in necrotic foot ulcer.
2008-06
Paederin toxin. Blister-beetle dermatitis of a limb due to Paederus irritans, known in Perú as latigazo (whiplash).
2014-07
Paragonimus mexicanus. Pulmonary and cutaneous.
2007-01